Detect therapeutically relevant pathophysiological nephrotoxicity of novel therapeutics using Cyprotex’s multi-parametric high content screening (HCS) human nephrotoxicity assay.
Cyprotex deliver consistent, high quality data with the flexibility to adapt protocols based on specific customer requirements.
Drugs cause approximately 20 percent of community- and hospital-acquired episodes of acute renal failure. Among older adults, the incidence of drug-induced nephrotoxicity may be as high as 66 percent.
2Naughton CA (2008) Drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Am Fam Physician 78(6); 743-750
|Cell Type||Renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC)|
|Analysis Platform||Cellomics ArrayScan® (Thermo Scientific)|
|Analysis Method||Combined High Content Screening (HCS)|
|Test Article Concentration*||8 point dose response curve with top concentration based on 100x Cmax or solubility limit|
|Number of Replicates*||3 replicates per concentration|
|Test Article Requirements||150 µL of a stock solution to achieve 100x Cmax (1000x top concentration to maintain 0.1% DMSO) or equivalent amount in solid compound.|
|Time Points*||9 days (216hrs)|
|Toxicity Markers*||Cell loss
Mitochondrial membrane potential
|Quality Controls*||Negative control: 0.1% DMSO (vehicle)
Positive controls: Sertraline and L-buthionine-sulfoximine
|Data Delivery||Minimum effective concentration (MEC) and AC50 values with dose response curves for each measured parameter.|
*Other options available on request.
RPTECs were exposed to test compound for 216 hours, re-dosing occurred on 3 occasions over this period. At 216 hours the cell model was analysed using a Cellomics ArrayScan® (Thermo Scientific) following incorporation of fluorescent dyes for cell health parameters including DNA structure (Syto11), GSH content (mBCl), phospholipidosis (HCS LipidTOX™ Red), mitochondrial dysfunction (MitoTracker® Deep Red). Subsequently cellular ATP content (CellTiter-Glo®, Promega) was determined.
|Compound||Human exposure Cmax (µM)*||Known nephrotoxin||Minimun effective concentration; MEC (µM)||Most sensitive feature|
|(S)-(+) Camptothecin||0.083||Yes||0.003||Nuclear size|
|Diclofenac||10.1||Yes||29||Cellular ATP level|
|Gentamycin||13||Yes||367||Mitochondrial membrane potential|
|< 1x Cmax||< 10x Cmax||< 30x Cmax||> 50x Cmax|
* Plasma Cmax values were taken from literature.
Utilising the RPTEC chronic exposure HCS assay all reference compound toxicities were correctly predicted with 100% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity within a 30x Cmax cut off (table 1). Multi-parametric high content screening allows detection of nephrotoxicity below therapeutic levels (Cmax) for cisplatin (MEC 0.106 µM; Cmax 2 µM) and cyclosporin A (MEC 0.709 µM; Cmax 11µM), highlighting the sensitivity of the assay.
The combination of an in vitro human relevant cell model with chronic compound exposures and multi-parametric endpoint assessment presents a viable screening strategy for the accurate in vivo relevant detection of novel therapeutics that cause nephrotoxicity early in drug development.
1Pazhayattil GS and Shirali AC (2014). Drug-induced impairment of renal function. Int J Nephrol Renovascular Dis 7; 457-468.
2 Naughton CA (2008). Drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Am Fam Physician 78(6): 743-750.
3 Ozer JS et al. (2010). A panel of urinary biomarkers to monitor reversibility of renal injury and a serum marker with improved potential to assess renal function. Nat Biotechnol 25(5): 486-494.
Learn more about toxicology in our popular Mechanisms of Drug-Induced Toxicity guide
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